[NATION] Malaysia

[AREA] About 330,000 square kilometers [POPULATION] 30 million, ethnic groups are 68.1% Malay, 23.8% Chinese, 7.1% Indian, 1.0% others. Official language is Malay, recognized language is English, and Chinese is also widely used. The official religion of Malaysia is Islam. Some of the other main religions include Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Christianity.

[CAPITAL] Kuala Lumpur, with the population of 1.674 million. [AGONG] Sultan Muhammad V, he was proclaimed as the 15th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia on 13 December 2016. [FESTIVALS] There are over hundred festivals across the country, and there are ten national festivals stipulated by government, which are, National Day (known as Independence Day, 31 August), New Years Day, Hari Raya Aidil Idul Fitri, Chinese New year, Hari Raya Aidil Idul Adha, Deepavali, Labor Day, Christmas, Wesak Day, Yang diPertuan Agong’s Birthday. In addition to these festivals with fixed dates, dates of other festivals are announced by the government in the previous year.

[BRIEF INTRODUCTION] Situates in South Asia Malaysia is divided by South China Sea into West and East. West Malaysia is the Peninsular of Malaya, northern part of the Peninsular is bordered with Thailand, the southern State is Johor separated by the Johor Strait to the Republic of Singapore. South China Sea is on the east of Malaya Peninsular with the Strait of Malacca on the west of Malaya Peninsular.

East Malaysia is on the northern part of Kalimantan, neighbouring states are Indonesia, the Philippines and Brunei. The coastline is about 4,192 kilometers. Located near the equator, Malaysia’s climate is categorized as tropical, being hot and humid throughout the year. The hilly interior temperature is between 2228℃, along the coastline temperature is between 25 and 30 ℃.

[POLITICS] There is constitutional monarchy, in which the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is head of state and the Prime Minister of Malaysia is the head of government. For some historical reasons, Sarawak and Sabah have greater autonomy. The Coalition of the ruling party under the leadership of UMNO has long been in power. The overall political situation is stable. On 31 October, 2003, Dr Mahathir Mohamad stepped down s the Prime Minister of Malaysia with Badawi as his successor, the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia and the President of the Barisan Nasional and UMNO.

Between 2004 and 2008, Badawi took office on two consecutive terms as the Prime Minister of Malaysia. In March 2009, Badawi resigned from his office, the President of the Barisan Nasional and UMNO, In April of the same year, Najib took over as the President of the Barisan Nasional and UMNO served as the 6th Prime Minister of Malaysia. On 5 May 2013, Malaysia held its 13th national general election. The Najib-led Barisan Nasional (BJN) won 133 seats out of 222 seats in the Dewan Rakyat with a simple majority, continued to rule the country. The BN won 9 State seats in 12 States.

[CONSTITUTION] The Constitution of the States of Malaya came into force in 1957, continued to be the Federal Constitution of Malaysia with subsequent amendments that stipulated the King (Yang di-Pertuan Agong) being the head of nation, leader of the Islam, chief commander of the armed forces, being elected to office for a term of five years by all the heads of the States.

Yang di-Pertuan Agong is given the supreme powers of legislative, judicial and administrative rights, with powers to appoint the Prime Minister and dismissal of the Parliament. In March 1993, the Constitution was amended by a Parliamentary resolution removed the legal immunity of the all State Sultans. In May 1994, the Constitution was amended, the management rights of water supply and culture heritage had become the Federal Government matters.

[CONFERENCE OF RULERS] Consisting of Sultan of Johor, Sultan of Pahang, Sultan of Selangor, Sultan of Sembilan, Sultan of Perak, Sultan of Tengagaru, Sultan of Kelantan, Sultan of Kedah, Sultan of Perlis, TYT of Malacca, TYT of Penang, TYT Sarawak and TYT of Sabah. The 9 Sultans will be elected in turn to be the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and Deputy of Yang di-Pertuan Agong for a term of 5 years. Conference of the Rulers will announce the laws and rules enforceable currently when updated. The supremacy decision in regard to Islamic matters and matters relate to the customary rights of Malay, Natives of Sarawak and Sabah lie with the Conference.

The Parliament cannot pass resolution on matters pertaining to the supremacy of the Conference. The Prime Minister, Menteri Besar and Chief Minister will assist the Rulers in convening the Rulers’ Conference.

[PARLIAMENT] The Parliament is the highest legislative body consists of the Dewan Negara (the House of Lords) and the Dewan Rakyat (the House of Commons). The Dewan Rakyat had a total of 222 seats for a term of five years and can be re-elected. In June 2013, the new Dewan Rakyat BN held 133 seats, Pakatan Rakyat held 89 seats. The then speaker of the Dewan Rakyat, Tan Sri Datuk PANDIKAR AMIN bin Haji Mulia, he took the office of the speaker on 28 April 2008 and was reappointed on 24 June, 2013.

The Dewan Negara had a total of 70 seats. Two members each were elected by the 13 state legislatures of the nation with the remaining 44 were appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong recommended by the Federal Cabinet for a term of 3 years, can be reappointed for two consecutive terms. S.

Vigneswaran Sanasee (born 1965) is the President of the Dewan Negara, or Senate, of Malaysia. He was appointed as a Senator on 23 June 2014 for a three-year term. He took the office of the President of the Senate on 26 April 2016.

[ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS] Malaysia is a federation comprising thirteen states (Negeri), they are Johor Darul Ta’zim, Kedah Darul Aman, Kelantan Darul Naim, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus, Pahang Darul Makmur, Penang, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Perlis Indera Kayangan, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Terengganu Darul Iman, and three federal territories (Wilayah Persekutuan), they are Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya.

Eleven states and two federal territories are located on the Malay Peninsula, collectively called Peninsular Malaysia (Semenanjung Malaysia) or West Malaysia. Two states are on the island of Borneo, and the remaining one federal territory is an island offshore of Borneo; they are collectively referred to as East Malaysia or Malaysian Borneo.

Out of the 13 states in Malaysia, 9 of the states are hereditary monarchies. [JUDICIARY] The Supreme Court was established on 1 January 1985, renamed as Federal Court in June 1994. Article 121 of the Constitution provides for two High Courts of co-ordinate jurisdiction, the High Court in Malaya, and the High Court in Sabah and Sarawak.

Thus this creates two separate local jurisdiction of the courts – for Peninsular Malaysia and for East Malaysia. State has a Sessions Court and Magistrate’s Court. Besides, there are also Special Military courts and Islamic courts.

Tun Arifin bin Zakaria (born 1 October 1947) was the Chief Justice of Malaysia, serving from 12 September 2011, succeeding Tun Zaki Azmi, till 31 March 2017. Tan Sri Dato’ Sri Haji Mohamed Apandi bin Haji Ali (born 11 February 1950) is the Attorney General of Malaysia since 28 July 2015.

[POLITICAL PARTY] Currently in Malaysia there are more than 40 registered political parties. The ruling party, National Front (Barisan National) comprising 14 component parties forms the majority both in parliament and in 8 of the 13 State Legislative Assemblies. In September 2015, the People’s Justice Party, the Democratic Action Party, and the National Honest Party formed the “Pakatan Harapan (Hope Alliance)” to replace the split alliance, Opposition Alliance and People’s Alliance.

The National Front (Malay: Barisan Nasional; abbrev: BN) is an opposition political party in Malaysia that was founded in 1973 as a coalition of right-wing and centre parties. Party Chairman Najib Razak was the sixth Prime Minister of Malaysia from 3 April 2009 until 10 May 2018.

Barisan Nasional is the direct successor to the three-party Alliance coalition formed of United Malays National Organisation(UMNO), Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), and Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC). It was founded in the aftermath of the 1969 general election and the 13 May riots.

The Alliance Party lost ground in the 1969 election to the opposition parties, in particular the two newly formed parties Democratic Action Party and Gerakan, and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS). Although the Alliance won a majority of seats, it gained less than half the popular vote, and the resulting tension between different communities led to riots and the declaration of a state of emergency.

After the Malaysian Parliament reconvened in 1971, negotiations began with former opposition parties such as Gerakan and People’s Progressive Party, both of which joined the Alliance in 1972, quickly followed by Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS). In 1973, the Alliance Party was replaced by Barisan Nasional.

The Barisan Nasional coalition, which included regional parties from Sabah and Sarawak (Sabah Alliance Party, Sarawak United Peoples’ Party (SUPP), Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu(PBB)), was formed as a grand coalition of 11 parties under the leadership of the prime minister Tun Abdul Razak. It was registered in June 1974 to contest the 1974 general election, which it won with considerable success.

[ECONOMY] Before the 1970s, the economy was dominated by agriculture and relied on the export of primary products. In the 1970s, Malaysia began to commit itself to a transition from being reliant on mining and agriculture to an economy that depends more on manufacturing.

In the 1970s, the predominantly mining and agricultural based Malaysian economy began a transition towards a more multi-sector economy. Since the 1980s the industrial sector has led Malaysia’s growth. High levels of investment played a significant role in this. At the same time, the implementation of the “New Economic Policy” with priority for the Malay people and the aborigines aims to achieve the goal of eliminating poverty and restructuring society.

Since the 1980s the industrial sector had led Malaysia’s growth. High levels of investment played a significant role in this. With Japanese investment, heavy industries flourished and in a matter of years, Malaysian exports became the country’s primary growth engine.

Malaysia consistently achieved more than 8% GDP growth along with low inflation in the 1980s and the 1990s. The main economic figures are as follows: GDP: USD 335.6 billion. GDP growth rate: 5% GDP per capita: USD 8,256 Total Foreign Trade: USD 366.5 billion. Foreign Exchange Reserves: USD 102.3 billion. Exchange Rate: USD 1 ≈ Ringgit 3.7 [RESOURCES]Malaysia is rich in natural resources.

Production and export of rubber, palm oil and pepper ranking top in the world. World number one production of tin has reduced its production in recent years. Oil reserve in Malaysia is also considerably rich. Other minerals of are iron-ore, bauxite.

[INDUSTRY] The government encourages processing industries based on domestic raw materials to focus on the development of electronics, automobiles, steel, petrochemicals and textiles, etc. In 2015, GDP in the manufacturing sector was 215.8 billion ringgit.

[MINING INDUSTRY] Mainly on tin mining, oil extraction and natural gas extraction. According to the statistics of the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water, crude oil reserves are 5.25 billion barrels, which can be exploited for 19 years. The natural gas reserves are 248.895 billion cubic meters and can be exploited for 33 years. According to Bureau of Statistics, in 2015, Malaysia’s oil production was 250 million barrels, and natural gas production was 6.82 billion cubic meters.

[SERVICE] It covers a wide range of industries, including water, electricity, transportation, communications, wholesale, retail, restaurants, restaurants, finance, insurance, real estate, and government agencies. Since the 1970s, the Malaysian government has continuously adjusted its industrial structure so that the service industry has developed rapidly and has become one of the pillar industries for the development of the national economy. Quantity of employment of about 5.3536 million, accounting for 50.76% of the country’s working population, is the largest employment industry.

[TOURISM] It is the country’s third largest economic pillar and the second largest source of foreign exchange earnings. It owns about 4072 hotels. The main tourist spots: Kuala Lumpur, Genting, Penang, Malacca, Langkawi, Tioman, Redang Island, Pangkor Island. According to the statistics of the Ministry of Tourism, the number of tourists to Malaysia in 2015 was 22.822 million.

[FOREIGN INVESTMENT] The main sources of foreign investment are the United States, Japan, China, Singapore and South Korea. In 2015, Malaysia attracted foreign direct investment of approximately 36.1 billion ringgit.

[CITIZENS’ LIVES] The average household disposable income in 2015 was 6, 141 ringgit per month. The average longevity of its citizens in 2015 was 72 for men and 77 for women.

[EDUCATION] Malaysian, Chinese, and Indian nationalities all have their own unique culture. The government strives to create a national culture based on Malay culture, pursue the “National Educational Policy”, and attach importance to popularize the Malay. Chinese education is to some degree common and there is a to some extent complete Chinese education system. There are 20 higher education institutions such as the University of Malaya and National University in the country.

In recent years, private higher education institutions have developed rapidly and there are more than 600 private colleges. In 2015, there were more than 600,000 college students.