State on the Belt and Road: Indonesia
<The name of the country>Republic of Indonesia
<Area>Land area of 1,904,443 square kilometers
<Population>255.5 million, the fourth most populous country in the world. There are hundreds of ethnic groups, including Javanese people accounted for 45% of the population, Sunda people 14%, Madurese people 7.5%, Malay 7.5%, and the other 26%.
It has more than 200 ethnic languages, and the official language is Indonesian. About 87% of the population believes in Islam. It is the country, which has the most Muslim people. 6.1% of the population believes in Christianity, 3.6% Catholicism, the rest of the Hinduism, Buddhism and primitive Fetishism.
<Capital City> JAKARTA, with the population of 9.969 million.
<Head of State> President Joko Widodo, who took office in October 2014 and his term of office is to 2019.
<Important Festivals> Eid Fitri, Eid al Adha; National Awakening Day (commemorating the establishing of the Indonesian national movement organization the “supreme good organization” in 1908) in May 20th. Independence Day: August 17th.
<Politics> After its independence on August 17th, 1945, it successively resisted the invasion of Britain and Holland.
During that time, it was forced to turn into the Federal Republic of Indonesia and join the imprint Federation. It was restored to Republic of Indonesia in August 1950 and was separated from the imprint Federation.
In July 2014, Indonesia held third Presidential elections. Jakarta governor Joko Widodo and former Vice President Yusuf Carla made a partner election and defeated Prabowo, the former commander of the army’s strategic reserve force, and Hada, former commander of the coordinating ministry for the economy.
On October 20th, the new President was sworn in as deputy until 2019. The Joko administration proposed the strategy of building a strong marine and focused on safeguarding the national security and developing the economy and combating corruption. Committed to solving the problems of poor infrastructure which have plagued Indonesia’s development for a long time, the administration attracted foreign investment, developed the economy, strengthened the supervision of government officials, and strived to create a clean government.
In July 2006, the Indonesian Congress passed the new Nationality Law, which abolished part of the content of racial discrimination and gender discrimination. In October 2008, the Indonesian Congress passed the act on the elimination of racial discrimination. <The Constitution> The current constitution is the Constitution of 1945. The constitution was promulgated on August 18, 1945.
It was replaced by the constitution of the Federal Republic of Indonesia in December, 1949 and the Provisional constitution of the republic of Indonesia in August, 1950 and resumed in July 5, 1957.
Four revisions were made between October 1999 and August 2002. The constitution stipulates that Indonesia is a single Republican country, and “belief in God, humanitarianism, nationalism, democracy and social justice” are the five basic principles of the founding of the country (Abbreviated “Pan cha Shelia”).
The President system was carried out, and the President was the head of the country, head of the Administration, and the head of the Supreme Commander of the armed forces.
<People’s conference> The full name is the people’s Consultative Conference. The national legislative body is composed of the people’s Congress (Congress) and the local council of Representatives.
It is responsible for enacting, revising and promulgating the constitution, and supervising the President. If the President is against the Constitutional law, it has the power to impeach the President. The general election is held every five years. The current people’s conference was established in October 2014.
There are 692 members of the MP, including 560 members of Parliament and 132 members of the Council of local representatives. There are one chairman and four vice chairmen. The current chairman is Zulkifli Hasan.
<The Congress> The full name is people’s Representative Council. The legislative authority of the state exercises general legislative power in addition to the constitutional amendment.
Congress doesn’t have the right to remove the presidency, and the President could not announce the dissolution of the Congress; but if the President is in violation of the constitution, the Congress has the power to advise the People’s Conference to judge the President’s responsibility. The Congress was set up in October 2014.
There are 560 members of the MP who hold a concurrent post in the people’s conference. The term of office is five years. There are one speaker and four deputy speakers. The present speaker is Setya Novento.
This Congress has 10 factions, namely the Democratic Struggle Party faction (18.95%), Professional Group Party department (14.75%), Grand Indonesia Movement Party faction (11.81%), the Democratic Party (10.19%), the National Awakening Party faction(9.04%), the mission of the National Party Faction (7.59%), Prosperous Justice Party faction (6.79%), the National Democratic Party (6.72%), Construction Party (6.53%), and the people of the party faction (5.26%).
<The local representative council> It is a newly established legislature in October 2004, which is responsible for the legislative work related to local autonomy, the relationship between central and local governments, the division of provinces and cities, and the management of national resources.
The members are from 33 provincial administrative regions in the country, with 4 representatives in each district added up to 132 members in total and concurrently also served as the members of the people’s conference. There is one chairman and two vice chairmen. The current chairman is Mohammad Saleh.
<Government> The cabinet was set up in October 2014, reorganized in August 2015 and reorganized again in July 2016. The current cabinet has 34 members, whose term of office is to 2019.
<Administrative division> 34 administrative districts (provincial) in total, including the capital city Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Aceh in 3 local special zones and 31 provinces. 514 second level administrative areas (county/city level) in total.
<Judicial Organ> The separation of the three powers is carried out. The Supreme Court is independent of the legislative and administrative bodies. The President of the Supreme Court is elected by the Supreme Court judge and the current President of the Supreme Courts is Hatta Ali.
<Party> The party law enacted in 1975 only allowed three parties to exist, namely the Golkar party, the Indonesian Democratic Party, and the construction party. The inhibition of Party was removed in May 1998. In the 2014 general election, totally 15 political parties participated in the election, 10 of them received a parliamentary seat.
The Democratic Struggle Party became the largest party in Congress. The major parties include:
(1) The Democratic Struggle Party (Partai Demokrasi Indonesia—Per—juangan): It was formed in October 1998 by the splits of the original Indonesian Democratic Party. It is a nationalist party, the representative of the Indonesian secular political power. “Pan cha Sheila” as the political declaration, the party carries forward the national spirit and opposes religion and racial discrimination. In 2014, it held 109 seats in the congressional elections and became the largest party in Congress. The current general President is Megawati Soekarnoputri.
(2) Golkar Party (Partai Golongan Karya): Joint Secretary professional group formed loosely in 1959. 64 people organized jointly set up a professional group in October 1964. In December 1970, it was expanded to a professional organization including 291 mass organizations. From 1967 to June 1999, it became the ruling party, but it had always been called the social and political organization. It was officially declared a political party in March 7, 1999. With “Pan cha Sheila” as the political programme, it advocated the political system reform on the basis of democracy and civil rights. They also safeguard human rights and improve the livelihood of people. In the 2014 congressional elections, it held 91 seats and became the second largest party in the Congress. General President is Setya Novanto.
(3) The Great Indonesia Movement Party <Partai Gerindra> : Founded in February 6, 2008, with “Pan cha Sheila” as the political programme, it advocates nationalism and humanitarianism. In the2009 general election, it pushed Prabowo as candidate, but was defeated because of lack of strength. In the 2014 congressional election it held 73 seats. General President is Prabowo Subianto.
(4) The Democratic Party (Partai Demokrat): Founded in September 9th, 2001, with “Pan cha Sheila” as its political programme, it aims at maintaining and consolidating national unity and advocates nationalism, freedom in religious belief, pluralism and humanitarianism. In April, 2009, it held 148 seats in the parliamentary election. It dropped sharply in the 2014 parliamentary election, with only 61 seats. The current general President is Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.
(5) National Mission Party (Partai Amanat Nasional): Founded in August 23rd, 1998, most members of it are the members of the second Muslin group Muhama Lydia in Indonesia. It has the characteristics of Islamic modernism. It advocates the separation and balance of the three powers, the sovereignty of the people, the economic equality, and the racial and religious harmony. In the 2014 congressional election, it held 48 seats and became the fifth largest party in Congress.
<Important Person> Joko Widodo: President, born in Thoreau, Central Java on June 21st, 1961. He believes in Islam. Born in a poor family, he graduated from the Yogyakarta motor cacha University in the department of Forestry. After graduating, he left for Atjeh area for a temporary work. In 1988, he returned to Thoreau to run the furniture industry and became a well-known local businessman.
He was elected mayor of Thoreau in 2005 and was reelected in 2010. He had an outstanding achievement during his term. In 2008, he achieved the “Star” medal awarded by the President and was elected the 25 best mayors in the world in 2010.
In September 2012, he was elected governor of Jakarta and retired in October, 2014. In July, 2014, he was elected as the President of Indonesia and inaugurated in October 20th until October, 2019. Cara: Vice President. He was born in Tamponi, Southern Sulawesi province in May 15th, 1942.
He graduated from the Institution of Economics, Hassan DAIM University in 1967. He received a master’s degree in Business Administration from the European School of Business Administration in France in 1977.
Long engaged in business, he has the Group of BUKAKA. He used to be the former Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry branch chairman in South Sudan, coordinator of the eastern region of the Industrial and Commercial Association, chairman of the Fellowship of the Bachelor of Economics in South Sudan, and chairman of the Indonesian Muslim University Foundation. In 2004, he was elected President of the Party of the Professional Group.
From 1999 to 2000, he was the Minister for Trade and Industry in the Vahid cabinet. From 2001 to 2004, he was the Minister for the overall welfare of the people in the Megawati cabinet. Resigned in 2004, he took the election with Susilo and became the Vice President in October.
From 2009 to 2014, he became the President of the Red Cross of Indonesia. In 2014, he took the election with his partner Joko and became the Vice President again. Economy Indonesia is the largest economy in ASEAN.
Agriculture, industry and service industry all play an important role in the national economy. Since 2008, in the face of the international financial crisis, the Indonesian government has been able to maintain a rapid growth in the economy. Since 2014, under the impact of the global economic downturn and the adjustment of the Fed’s monetary policy, the Indonesia shield rapidly devalued.
In 2015, the GDP of Indonesia was 858.8 billion dollars, increasing 4.79% over the last year. The total amount of imports and exports is 293 billion dollars, and the inflation rate is 3.35%. <Resources> Rich in Petroleum, natural gas and coal, tin, bauxite, nickel, copper, gold, silver and other mineral resources.
The mining industry occupies an important position in the Indonesian economy, which accounts for about 10% of the GDP. According to the official statistics from Indonesia, Indonesia’s oil reserves are about 9.7 billion barrels (13.1 billion tons), natural gas reserves are 4.8 trillion to 5.1 trillion cubic meters.
The proven reserves of local are 193 billion tons, and potential reserves can reach 900 billion tons or more.
<Industry> The direction of industrial development is to strengthen the export-oriented manufacturing industry. The main departments are mining, textile, light industry and so on. The production of tin, coal, nickel, gold, silver and other minerals ranks the top in the world.
<Agriculture> The total area of cultivated land in Indonesia is about 80 million hectares. This country is rich in economic crops such as palm oil, rubber, coffee, cocoa and so on.
<Fishery> Fishery resources are abundant. The government estimates that the potential fishing amount is over 8 million tons per year.
<Forestry> Forest area is 137 million hectares and the forest coverage rate is over 60%. In order to protect forestry resources, Indonesia announced that it had banned the export of logs since 2002.
<Tourism> Tourism is the second largest foreign exchange industry in Indonesia’s non-oil and gas industry, which is only next to the export of electronic products. The government has long attached importance to developing tourist attractions, building hotels, training personnel and simplifying entry procedures.
Since 1997, the tourism has been developing slowly due to the adverse effects of the financial crisis, political unrest, terrorist explosions, natural disasters and avian influenza. In 2007, the number of foreign tourists to Indonesia reached 8.8 million in 2015.
From January to August in 2016, there were 7.36 million visitors to Indonesia. The main attractions are Bali Island, Jakarta, Borobudur, Yogyakarta miniature Park Pagoda Temple, the palace of the King of Sultan, Pula ban North Sumatra and Lake Toba.
<Transportation> Highways and waterways are important means of transportation, in which the road is responsible for nearly 90% of the domestic passenger transport and 50% of the freight.
Railway facilities are relatively backward, and only Java and Sumatra, two islands have railroads. Air transport has developed rapidly in recent years.
<Foreign Trade> Foreign trade occupies an important position in the national economy of Indonesia. The government has taken a series of measures to encourage and promote the export of non oil and gas products, simplify export procedures and reduce tariffs. Foreign trade in 1997 amounted to 95.2 billion dollars.
In 1998 and 1999, there was a continuous decline. In 2000, the economy increased by 32% because of the exports and domestic demand. In 2001 and 2002, the economy fell because of the impact of global economic slowdown.
In 2003 and 2004, the economy grows again. The average annual growth rate from 2005 to 2006 is over 10%. After the international financial crisis in 2008, the total amount of foreign trade has declined, and it has gradually increased after 2009, and has declined again since 2012.
In recent years, the situation of foreign trade is as follows (unit: millions of dollars):The main export products are oil, natural gas, textiles and garments, wood, rattan products, handcrafts, shoes, copper, coal, pulp and paper products, electrical appliances, palm oil, rubber and so on.
The main import products include mechanical transportation equipment, chemical products, automobile and spare parts, power generation equipment, steel, plastic and plastic products, cotton and so on. The major trading partners are China, Japan, Singapore, and the United States and so on.
<Foreign capacity> Foreign capacity has an important role in promoting the development of Indonesia’s economy. The Indonesian government attaches great importance to improving the investment environment and attracting foreign investment. Indonesia attracted about 30 billion dollars a year before the financial crisis in 1997. After the crisis, it has fallen sharply.
The Susilo Administration attaches great importance to improving the investment environment and attracting foreign investment. The actual utilization of foreign capital in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 respectively was 17.3, 22.9, 22.3 and 23 billion dollars. Under the impact of a substantial devaluation of the Indonesian shield, the foreign investment was 13.6 billion in 2015. The amount of foreign capital attracted 21.87 billion in the first three quarters of 2016. The main sources of investment are Singapore, Japan, China, the United States, the United Kingdom and South Korea.
<Foreign aid> Foreign aid is mainly provided by the CONSULTATIVE GROUP ON INDONESIA (CGI), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the world bank and Japan, the United States and so on.
<Education> It carries out the nine years compulsory education. Famous universities including: Indonesia University in Jakarta, Jiacha motor University in Yogyakarta, Airlangga University in Surabaya, Bandung Institution of Technology in Bandung, Banchachalan University, Bogor Agricultural College in Bogor.
<Press and Publications> There are more than 3000 kinds of newspapers and periodicals. The main Indonesian Newspapers are: “Professional”, “Kompas Voice”, “Media Indonesia Newspaper”, “Republic Day”, “Innovation Voice” and “Business in Indonesia” English Newspaper: “Jakarta Post”, “Jakarta Globe”, “Indonesia Observer”; Chinese Newspaper: “International Daily Newspaper”, “Daily”, the “Kuril Daily”, “Sin Chew Daily” (the original “Indonesia Daily”).
<Foreign relations> Pursue a positive and independent foreign policy.
(Editorial Department of this newspaper)